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2.1.2 The insects
choice 1
    SOURCE:www.sulphurbutterfly.comAlmost 5000 species of terrestrial and amphibious invertebrates live in the area of the locks canal on the Solomonov branch - Jebriank gulf (ECZ), out of which 90% are insects (up to 4000 species). Out of the 8 entomological groups of the Danube Natural Reserve, 5 are well represented in the ECZ area, namely: reeds, meadow, sandy, and shrubs, anthropic. The forest group is poorly represented, and the steppes and salted soil groups cannot be found here. Scientifically and ecologically, the meadow and sandy groups are the most interesting.
    Out of the insects living in the ECZ area, 32 species are protected (i.e. 76.2% of the protected species of the Danube Natural Reserve and around 70% of the protected species in the Ukrainian part of the Delta) pertaining to 27 genera, 20 families, and 7 others: hymenoptera - 11 species (34.4%), butterflies - 8 species (25%), dragon flies - 6 species (8.8%), bugs - 3 species (9.4%), orthoptera - 1 specie (3.1%). Out of 32 species protected in the UCE, 20 are listed in the Red Book of Ukraine (URB), 5 species in the European Red List (ERL), and the Bern Convention list (BC), 3 species in the ERL, 2 Species in the IUCN, URB and ERL, one specie in the IUC, BC and UBC. The rarest of the protected species are the manure bugs. Around 80 rare and extinction menaced species, not listed in the protection lists have been discovered in the ZCE. Among these, 5 are unknown species, 2 are new to Europe and 12 new to the Ukraine fauna, 2 are endemic for the Danube Delta and one unknown species belongs to the Picnoflastor genus. In respect to the diversity, the area of the rocky structure in the Vilkovo Primorske road sector is the richest; here all the main entomological complexes are represented. 26 protected species live in the area, out of which 14 are rare species.
    The scientific literature mentions the fact that the Jebrianovsk Gulf area and its neighboring swamps and marshes area are the first in respect to the species diversity. The largest number of insects (22) listed in CRU and LRE live in this area. The Stentsevo-Jebriansks swamps is the only area in the Ukraine where the CRU Aeschna viridis Ev. dragonfly lives. Some species of parasites living in the swamps area have been lately discovered in this area.
Choice 2
    In the area corresponding to choice 2 of construction (the Bystroe channel), among terrestrial and amphibious invertebrates, insects are the most numerous (around 3,500 species) belonging to 32 genuses. Most of them (90%) belong to 6 genuses: hymenoptera; diptera; bugs; butterflies; ticks. Out of the 8 entomological groups, one is not represented: the steppe group; 5 of them are very well represented: the reeds, meadows, sandy, bush and forest group. The largest surface is bush covered; the bush and meadow group are remarkable by the diversity of species. The anthropic and salted soils groups are poorly represented and they can be found in a small area. 23 species among the insects living in this area are protected (56% of all the protected species represented in the Danube Natural Reserve) belonging to 7 orders: butterflies (8 species), hymenoptera (7), bugs (3), dragon flies (2), ephemeredes (1), orthoptera (1) and diptera.(1). Most of the protected species discovered in the Danube Natural Reserve area are listed in the Red Book of Ukraine.
    Comparing the terrestrial and amphibious invertebrates habitats in choice 1 and 2 areas reveals the significant difference between them. The diversity of species in choice 1 area is 12% larger than in the other area. Yet, in the choice 1 area, fewer insect orders live than in the Choice 2 area (19, compared to 23). In both areas the same 6 orders are represented, but their proportion differs. The compared areas differ also in respect to the composure of the entomological habitats. Many rare and protected species live in both areas, but their lists are quite different. 78% of the species in the choice 2 areas and 56.3% of the species in choice 1 are protected. The species menaced by extinction are fewer: choice 1 - 29.4%; choice2 - 33.3%. Unknown species, new to Ukraine and Europe, have been discovered in both areas. Due to the specific conditions of this area, specific zoological habitats, with unique functional components, were created.
    Data related to the existence of the protected species in other areas of the Danube Natural Reserve are not to be found in the Hydrobiological Institute report.
    The compared areas are recognized ad equally important from a scientific and ecological point of view, in respect to the presence of insects.
    The choice of the Bystroe Channel is nonetheless preferable, because of the lesser impact on the flora constituting the insects' habitat.
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